Don't count on vitamin D or fish oil supplements to reduce your risk of cancer or heart disease – A widely anticipated study has concluded that neither vitamin D nor fish oil supplements prevent cancer or serious heart-related problems in healthy older people.

Source: JoAnn E. Manson, et al. Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 2018.

The landscape of the U.S. could be part of its climate solution – Natural climate solutions that are based on conserving, restoring and properly managing lands have the potential to mitigate 21% of U.S. annual greenhouse gas emissions.

Source: Joseph E. Fargione, et al. Natural climate solutions for the United States. Science Advances, 2018.

Neanderthals Were Just As Violent As Early Humans – A large-scale analysis comparing Neanderthal and Homo sapiens skulls found similar trauma rates, suggesting similar lifestyles among the two species.

Source: Judith Beier, Nils Anthes, Joachim Wahl, Katerina Harvati. Similar cranial trauma prevalence among Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic modern humans. Nature, 2018.

Complex stone tools in China may re-write our species’ ancient history – A cache of sophisticated stone tools from a cave in China date back 170,000 years – perhaps a sign that our species arrived in East Asia earlier than we thought

Source: Yue Hu, et al. Late Middle Pleistocene Levallois stone-tool technology in southwest China. Nature, 2018.

This animal on a cave wall in Borneo is the oldest known figurative painting in the world – In limestone caves hidden deep in the jungle of Borneo, archaeologists have discovered the oldest known figurative drawing created by a human artist, dating back at least 40,000 years.

Source: M. Aubert, et al. Palaeolithic cave art in Borneo. Nature, 2018.

To burn the most calories, it helps to heed the clock – The number of calories people burn while at rest changes with the time of day. When at rest, people burn 10% more calories in the late afternoon and early evening than in the early morning hours.

Source: Kirsi-Marja Zitting, et al. Human Resting Energy Expenditure Varies with Circadian Phase. Current Biology, 2018.

How people use music as a sleeping aid – Music is free and doesn't have negative side effects, unlike sleeping aid drugs.

Source: Tabitha Trahan, Simon J. Durrant, Daniel Müllensiefen, Victoria J. Williamson, Stephany Fulda. The music that helps people sleep and the reasons they believe it works: A mixed methods analysis of online survey reports. PLOS ONE, 2018.